In this Blogpost I wan't to explain the concept of 'Peer 2 Peer'.
To get started, let's have a look at how the web is working nowadays:
Let's say you wan't to search something online. If you are part of the 90%, you will probably use Google. But what happens exactly when you search something on Google?
(In case you are techsavvy, don't hate me for simplifying this stuff heavily ;) )
Google has their Servers, which are basically very powerful PC's on which the software runs, that is used by them to search the internet. If you go to google.com, you basically asked the so called 'DNS Servers', where you can find the Google Server. Then, you are redirected to the server, where you can ask it for a searchterm and then, Google gives you the result.
This workflow follows the so called Client-Server Model: You as the client ask Google - the Server - something, in this case you ask it to find something for you on the internet.
This appproach has a few issues:
- Firstly, you are completely dependent on Google, if they choose to change something on their server, nothing stops them from doing it.
- Secondly, since millions of clients connect every day to the Google server, it has a huge overhead and therefore Google needs to have a huge Data Center.
This is not a healthy way of using the internet, infact it wasn't even intendet to be used this way, when it was first invented.
But what is the alternative?
In the recent years the concept of 'Peer 2 Peer' was born. Basically this means, that instead of having one central server, who handels the request (in our case the search request), the queries are spread over lot's of computers, everyone searching something to be precise.
In this new world, you run the software, that searches on the internet directly on your computer, without asking a central server.
'But how can that work?' you might ask. Well this is where the Peer 2 Peer concept actually kicks in:
Everybody runs the software on their computer and talks to each other person using it, his socalled 'peers'. That way, everybody could just know about a few sites on the internet, but collectively, we would have them all. Then, if I search something, I first look, if I can find something in the sites I know about. If not, I can just ask one of my peers.
One search engine, that uses this concept is calld 'Yacy'.
This is just meant as an introduction, using one example. There is a lot more behind the scenes of Peer 2 Peer, so definately check it out and do your research.
Let's create a better Internet together!Link to this Blog Post
Get pushed by Gotify!
One of the last things to get rid of regarding Google,
is the dependency on their Push Notification System called GCM.
Nearly every App relies on it to send Push Notifications.
For those of you who don't know, push notifications are a way to wake up a device (generally speaking a mobile phone) with a notification, without it having to listen all the time for incoming messages. This has many benefits, among it the reduced battery drain.
Some time ago I found out about Gotify, which is basically a Open Source Push Notification server. Although Apps don't use it directly, I was finally able to get rid of the last bit of Google on my Phone: GCM.
To make use of it, I simply wrote some python scripts, which work as a bridge between the Apps and the Gotify server.
I have one for Nextcloud notifications for instance. All it does is check for new notifications on Nextcloud and if it finds one that has not yet been pushed to the Gotify server, it pushes it and I get the notification.
You can find those scripts on my Github page https://github.com/mrchainman .
At the moment there is one for Nextcloud, Mastodon and Email.Link to this Blog Post
Today I will introduce you to GNU/Linux.
GNU/Linux is a operating system, which can be used as an alternative to Windows or Mac OS.
It consists of the so called Linux Kernel (the base of the system) and the user space written by GNU (basically all the programs on top of the system).
For the rest of this post I will refer to it simply as Linux.
So what is the difference between Linux and Windows or MacOS?
The main difference is that Linux is open source, meaning that anybody can look into the code and change or use it free of charge. This gives Linux many advantages:
So now the we know what Linux is and why you should use it, how do you get started?
The easiest way is to create a so called "bootable stick", you can do that from Windows or Linux. This installs the Linux system onto a usb stick, which you can directly use. I recommend that you start with Ubuntu or Linux Mint, as they are very user friendly and easy to use. Just look online for "How to create a bootable Linux USB Stick" and you will find many tutorials.
Once you have created the stick, you can just reboot your pc with the stick inserted and you will be able to try Linux directly without having to install it onto your hard disk.You may need to adjust some settings in your BIOS, but the tutorial you follow will probably cover that.
If you are convinced by it, you can than install it onto your system and start using it full-time.
Be sure to backup all your Files before installing it onto you hard disk, as the installation will delete everything on that disk.
One thing to keep in mind, is that Linux works differently than Windows or MacOS, it is not just a rip off.
You have other ways to install software, you have different software available, and you might be confused at first.
But give it time, get to know the system and I promise you, that you will like it.
I started using Linux 7 years ago and have never looked back since.Link to this Blog Post
Youtube is notorious for collecting lots of data about you, while you watch videos. There is however a way to circumvent this:
Not watching the videos on Youtube.
There is an App called "Newpipe", which allows you to watch any Youtube video, without compromising your privacy. It is fully open source and available in the F-Droid Store. Many of you may already know about this App or equivalents, but only few know, that you can do the same thing in your browser. If you go to Invidio.us you can watch every Youtube video without having to go to Youtube. Invidio.us has also other advantages:
In this blogpost I will explain you, how you can stop ads and tracking while surfing.
Firs of all, why should you stop ads and tracking?
Well, they go hand in hand, as tracking is used for personalized advertising.
Through tracking, advertisers are able to gather data about you, which products you like, when you are likely to buy something, how often you buy stuff ...
This gives them the ability to generate a so called "Advertiser ID" for you, which basically lets them know, which ads they should show you, when you are online. There is a simple fix for this, which can be implemented by anyone.
Steven Black, wrote a program, which disables all those tracking sites.
To understand how this works, you first have to know what an "IP Address", a "Domain Name" and DNS are.
Now that we have it all together, we can understand how Stevens tool works. There is a special IP Address, also called the "Null Address" which is 0.0.0.0.
It doesn't point to any server or pc, in a certain sense it does not exist.
We can take advantage of that, by using DNS to point the domain names of trackers to this Null Address, thereby telling our PC to look for them at 0.0.0.0, which as we said doesn't point anywhere.
This can be achieved by editing the so called "Hosts File" on our PC, depending on your operating system the location of it may vary, so just go to DuckDuckGo ( Not Google ;) ) and search for "Windows 10 Hosts File" for example.
Now you can just copy the contents of the file listed at https://raw.githubusercontent.com/StevenBlack/hosts/master/hosts and paste them into your hosts file. Steven explains other methods here, but those are more advanced and I want to keep this as simple as possible.
In case you notice that you cannot reach a certain website, which you would like to be able to view, all you have to do is delete the corresponding entry in the hosts file. An entry is always of the form:
IP Address domain name
So for example it could be
I hope this little tutorial helped you to fight tracking and ads.Link to this Blog Post
Today I will explain you how you can reduce Spam and Ads in your INBOX.
Did you ever receive those annoying ads about booking a new flight or spam mails like "you have won ... blah blah"?
Me too, but it does not have to be this way. There is a concept called "Throwaway Mails" or "Burner Mails".
Basically this is a service, that offers you email addresses, which forward incoming mails to your real INBOX.
The advantage is, that you can delete these at any time, that way you can stop receiving spam or ads.
Some also offer features like whitelisting emails, or limiting the amount of emails that will be forwarded.
Personally, I use trashmail.com, which costs 20$ a year and you have basically unlimited email addresses.
You can head over to Trashmail and check it out.
They also offer a trial version, where the email addresses get autodeleted if you don't update them after a month.
That's it for now.Link to this Blog Post
So you are using Google and can't live without it. That's fair enough. But this doesn't necessarily mean that you can't have privacy.
At least in the case of Gmail and Google Drive Storage, you can circumvent it.
Let me introduce you to GnuPG, the GNU implementation of OpenPGP:
With GnuPG, aka GPG or "The GNU Privacy Guard", you can encrypt files and emails relatively easily.
They have clients for Linux, Android, Windows and I think also OSX and iOS, that you can easily install.
I won't go into detail about how to use them, as there are many tutorials out there, but I will explain how GPG works, and why you should use it.
Basically the concept is the following:
You generate a key pair, consisting of a public and a private key.
The public key is used only for encryption, meaning that it can't decrypt the files or emails.
The private key on the other hand, is what is used for decryption.
Now the concept is pretty easy to understand, first let's have a look at files:
In the case of emails the thing is a little bit trickier, because the person sending you emails will need your private key.
Remember: Your public key cannot decrypt anything, so it is save to hand it to others.
To achieve this, you could either send the key to every person who is likely to send you emails, or make use of a so called key server, whose only purpose is to store public keys, in order for people to easily find them.
Once the person sending you an email has your public key, all they have to do is encrypt the message with it before hitting send.
There are lots of tools out there to do this, but they all work the same.
You can then easily decrypt the message with your private key.
For many people this may seem like a lot of work, so I am happy to tell you, that I am working on a project, which will allow you to use my service, where all this stuff happens transparently in the background. Stick around for news about it.Link to this Blog Post